FGF (fibroblast growth factor) signalling is known to be required for many aspects of mesoderm formation and patterning during Xenopus development and has been implicated in regulating genes required for the specification of both blood and skeletal muscle lineages. Fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF4) signaling induces differentiation from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) via the phosphorylation of downstream molecules such as mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-related kinase (MEK) and extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). Fibroblast Growth Factor 4 (FGF-4) could not only increase the proliferation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), but also induce BMSCs into hepatocyte-like cells in vitro. FGF4 transduced BMSCs contributed to liver regeneration might by the transplanted microenvironment. The FGF4-bFGF BMSCs thus can enhance the survival of the transplanted cells, diminish myocardial fibrosis, promote myocardial angiogenesis, and improve cardiac functions.
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