CCL1 or chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 1, also known as I-39 or TCA-3, is a member of the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand family. The C-C kemokines have two cysteines nearby the amino terminus. There have been at least 27 distinct members of this subgroup reported for mammals, called C-C chemokine ligands (CCL)-1 to 28. I-39/CCL1/TCA-3 interacts with the G protein-linked transmembrane chemokine receptors CCR8, and induces biochemical events that may result in the control of chemotaxis, proliferation, apoptosis and adhesion. It has been demonstrated that I-39/CCL1/TCA-3 displays chemotactic activity for monocytes and other cell types such as NK cells and dendritic cells, but not for neutrophils. Furthermore, as the only known physiological ligand for CCR8, I-39/CCL1/TCA-3 was identified as a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 envelope-mediated cell-cell fusion and virus infection. I-39/CCL1/TCA-3 induce significant levels of LTC4 from elicited eosinophils.
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