Aldose reductase (AKR1B1) belongs to the aldo/keto reductase superfamily. AKR1B1 is a NADPH-dependent aldo-keto reductase best known as the rate-limiting enzyme of the polyol pathway. Expression of AKR1B1 was the highest in lens and retina. It is the first enzyme in the polyol pathway through which glucose is converted to sorbitol which is important for the function of various organs in the body, and has been implicated in the etiology of diabetic complications. AKR1B1 is quite abundant in the collecting tubule cells and thought to provide protection against hypertonic environment. Some human tissues contain AKR1B1 as well as AKR1B10, a closely related member of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily.