|SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV)||Betacoronavirus||Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
As of 5th August, >18.4M infected, >699K death.
|SARS-CoV||Betacoronavirus||Severe acute respiratory syndrome(SARS), mortality rate 9%|
|MERS-CoV||Betacoronavirus||Middle East respiratory syndrome(MERS), mortality rate >30%|
|HCoV-HKU1||Betacoronavirus||Mild respiratory disease|
|HCoV-NL63||Alphacoronavirus||Mild respiratory disease|
|HCoV-OC43||Betacoronavirus||Mild respiratory disease|
|HCoV-229E||Alphacoronavirus||Mild respiratory disease|
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|All coronaviruses share very similar structures. The viral genome encodes several proteins of unique functions, including Spike protein, N protein, HE protein, papain-like proteases, and M protein. The two antigens of main pharmaceutical interest are the S (spike) protein and the N protein. The N (nucleocapsid) protein is often conserved, which can be used as a diagnostic marker. The Spike protein is mainly responsible for receptor binding, and is a common target for vaccines and antibodies.
The spike protein is particular important as its interaction with the host cell receptor is the pivotal step during the infection. Different viruses may utilize different surface receptor for binding. The HCOV- NL63, SARS-COV, and the new SARS-COV-2 viruses all use the ACE2 receptor, while the MERS-COV virus selectively binds with the DPP4 receptor. The HCOV-229E virus targets APN receptor. The rest two common coronavirus, HKU1 and OC43 bind with O-ac Sia.
|Spike||Receptor binding and membrane fusion
Target for antiviral treatment and vaccines
|Nucleocapsid||Genome replication and cell signaling regulation
A diagnostic marker
|Plpro||Viral polyprotein cleavage and host innate immune response blockage; Target for drugs development|
|3CLPro||Polypeptides cleavage and IFN signaling inhibition
Target for drugs development
|E||Assembly and release of the virus
Vaccine candidates; Target for drugs development
|M||Membrane and virion structure|
|HCoV Types||Host receptors|
|HCoV-229E||APN ( aminopeptidase N, CD13 )|
|HCoV-NL63||ACE2 ( angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 )|
|MERS-CoV||DPP4 ( dipeptidyl peptidase 4 )|
|SARS-CoV||ACE2 ( angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 )|
|SARS-CoV-2||ACE2 ( angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 )|
• Ref: Anthony R. Fehr and Stanley Perlman.Coronaviruses: An Overview of Their Replication and Pathogenesis.Methods Mol Biol. 2015;
• R.J.G. Hulswit.Coronavirus Spike Protein and Tropism Changes.Advances in Virus Research.2016;
• YUDONG YIN AND RICHARD G. WUNDERINK.MERS, SARS and other coronaviruses as causes of pneumonia.Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.2017
• Xintian Xu.Evolution of the novel coronavirus from the ongoing Wuhan outbreak and modeling of its spike protein for risk of human transmission.SCIENCE CHINA Life Sciences.2020